Ex-Migrant Nurses Empowerment after Recovery from Covid-19 Pandemic: An Analysis of Reflective Cycle Gibbs Model


  • La Jumu Department of Nursing, Poltekkes Kemenkes Jayapura, Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia
  • Syaifoel Hardy Indonesian Nursing Trainer, Malang City, East Java, Indonesia
  • Sugeng Riyadi Department of Healthcare, Qatar Energy, Qatar
  • Dharmawan Arief Special Elderly Nursing Homes, Bungkyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • Ridha Afzal Indonesian Nursing Trainer, Malang City, East Java, Indonesia
  • Sukatemin Sukatemin Department of Nursing, Poltekkes Kemenkes Jayapura, Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia




Empowerment, Ex-Migrant Indonesian Nurses, Reflective Cycle Gibbs


During the Covid-19 outbreak, many ex-migrant nurses who had resigned and were living in Indonesia were unable to return to work. The objective of this study is to develop strategies for empowering ex-migrant nurses in the sustainable healthcare sector following the recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic. The Reflective Cycle Gibbs (RCB) model was employed during the research, which comprised six stages that began with a document review and PRISMA analysis. The PRISMA Analysis utilized Google search engines to filter documents from Google Scholar, Research Gate, and other sources. The RCB model examined 10 eligible journals and discovered records of nurses who returned to their home country due to inadequate pay, career development, workforce protection policy, and empowerment facilities. We concluded 4 problems encountered by returnee nurses i.e. lack of protection policy, poor wages, less career development, and lack of empowerment facilities.


Download data is not yet available.


Adeani, I. S., Febriani, R. B., & Syafryadin, S. (2020). Using Gibbs' Reflective Cycle in Making Reflections of Literary Analysis. Indonesian EFL Journal, 6(2), 139-148. https://doi.org/10.25134/ieflj.v6i2.3382 DOI: https://doi.org/10.25134/ieflj.v6i2.3382

Adebayo, B., Nichols, P., Albrecht, M.A., Brijnath, B., Heslop, K.(2021). Investigating the Impacts of Acculturation Stress on Migrant Care Workers in Australian Residential Aged Care Facilities. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 32(4), 389-398. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659620947810 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659620947810

Al-Ashwal, F. Y., Kubas, M., Zawiah, M., Bitar, A. N., Saeed, R. M., Sulaiman, S. A. S., Khan, A. H., & Ghadzi, S. M. S. (2020). Healthcare workers’ knowledge, preparedness, counselling practices, and perceived barriers to confront COVID-19: A cross-sectional study from a war-torn country, Yemen. PLoS ONE, 15(12), e0243962. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243962 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243962

Betriana, F., Tanioka, T., Locsin, R. C., Malini, H., & Lenggogeni, D. P. (2020). Are Indonesian nurses ready for healthcare robots during the COVID-19 pandemic? Belitung Nursing Journal, 6(3), 63–66. https://doi.org/10.33546/BNJ.1114 DOI: https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1114

Calenda, D., & Bellini, A. (2021). The challenging integration paths of migrant health professionals: The case of filipino and indian nurses in the uk. Professions and Professionalism, 11(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.7577/pp.3898 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7577/pp.3898

Chawa, A. F., Nugroho, A.B., & Sutopo, D. S. (2020). Empowering Women Ex-Migrant Workers and Domestic Violence Victims through Komunitas Perempuan Singkong Jaya. Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan, 8(2), 69–83. https://doi.org/10.22500/8202031910 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22500/8202031910

Efendi, F., Haryanto, J., Indarwati, R., Kuswanto, H., Ulfiana, E., Has, E. M. M., & Chong, M. C. (2021). Going global: Insights of indonesian policymakers on international migration of nurses. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 14, 3285–3293. https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S327962 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S327962

Efendi, F., Mackey, T. K., Huang, M. C., & Chen, C. M. (2015). IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration. Nursing Ethics, 24(3), 313–328. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733015602052 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733015602052

Espino-Díaz, L., Fernandez-Caminero, G., Hernandez-Lloret, C. M., Gonzalez-Gonzalez, H., & Alvarez-Castillo, J. L. (2020). Analyzing the impact of COVID-19 on education professionals. Toward a paradigm shift: ICT and neuroeducation as a binomial of action. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(14), 5646. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145646 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145646

Farah, D. R., & Choi, H. (2019). Associations of Acculturative Stress, Depression, and Quality of Life among Indonesian Migrant Workers in South Korea. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 28(2), 172-180. https://doi.org/10.12934/jkpmhn.2019.28.2.172 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12934/jkpmhn.2019.28.2.172

Galutira, G. D. (2018). Theory of Reflective Practice in Nursing. International Journal of Nursing Science, 8(3), 51–56. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.nursing.20180803.02

Goh, H. S., Tan, V., Lee, C. N., Zhang, H., & Devi, M. K. (2022). Nursing Home’s Measures during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Critical Reflection. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(1), 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010075 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010075

Hardy, S., Hadi, N., & Tukayo, I. J. H. (2021). The demands on nursing curriculum flexibility towards the need of global workforce: A systematic review. Journal of Holistic Nursing Science, 8(2), 114–121. https://doi.org/10.31603/nursing.v8i2.4808 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31603/nursing.v8i2.4808

Harjana, N. P. A., Januraga, P. P., Indrayathi, P. A., Gesesew, H. A., & Ward, P. R. (2021). Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Among Repatriated Indonesian Migrant Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health, 9: 630295. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.630295 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.630295

Hastuti, M., Megawati, V., Pratono, A. H., & Nour, M.(2019). Migration and Development: A case study of Indonesian migrant workers. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 307, 570-576. https://doi.org/10.2991/sores-18.2019.131 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/sores-18.2019.131

Inter-Parliamentary Union. (2015). Migration, human rights and governance. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Karim, S. S. A., & Karim, Q. A. (2021). Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant: a new chapter in the COVID-19 pandemic. he Lancet, 398(10317), 2126-2128. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02758-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02758-6

Koczan, Z., Peri, G., Pinat, M., & Rozhkov, D. L. (2021). The impact of international migration on inclusive growth: A review. IMF Working Papers, 2021 (088), 1-33. https://doi.org/10.5089/9781513571966.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5089/9781513571966.001

Lin, Y., Hu, Z., Danaee, M., Alias, H., & Wong, L. P. (2021). The impact of the covid-19 pandemic on future nursing career turnover intention among nursing students. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 14, 3605–3615. https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S322764 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S322764

Manoppo, V. P., Astuti, E. S., Raharjo, K., & Kusumawati, A. (2021). Transformational Leadership dan Job Satisfaction Variabel A As Factor That Decrease Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Nurses in Private Hospitals in Manado City. Wacana Journal of Social and Humanity Studies, 24(4), 153-161. Retrieved from https://wacana.ub.ac.id/index.php/wacana/article/view/875

Moyce, S. C., & Schenker, M. (2018). Migrant Workers and Their Occupational Health and Safety. Annual Review of Public Health, 39, 351–365. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013714 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013714

Mujiati, M., Su’udi, A., Nugraha, S., & Rosita, R. (2020). Penempatan Perawat pada Fasilitas Pelayanan Kesehatan di Luar Negeri: Alur dan Kendala. Jurnal Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Pelayanan Kesehatan, 4(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.22435/jpppk.v4i1.3229 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22435/jpppk.v4i1.3229

Nortvedt, L., Lohne, V., & Dahl, K. (2020). A courageous journey: Experiences of migrant Philippine nurses in Norway. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(3–4), 468–479. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15107

Nugraha, S., Raharjo, T. W., & Hirano, Y. (2021). Migration of the Indonesian Care Workforce in Response to the Ageing Population, and Future Challenges. July, 74–84.

Nukpezah, R., Fuseini, A., Bawa, F., Napari, A., Wuffele, G., Asumadu, O. ., Peprah, W., & Asare, R. (2021). Reflective Practice: Its Knowledge, Practice and Perception During Covid-19 Among Paediatric Nursing Students .American Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing Practice, 6(3), 39 - 52. https://doi.org/10.47672/ajhmn.771 DOI: https://doi.org/10.47672/ajhmn.771

Oliveira, K. K. D. de, Freitas, R. J. M. de, Araújo, J. L. de, & Gomes, J. G. N. (2020). Nursing Now and the role of nursing in the context of pandemic and current work. Revista Gaucha de Enfermagem, 42(spe), e20200120. https://doi.org/10.1590/1983-1447.2021.20200120 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1983-1447.2021.20200120

Philip, H., P., B. P., Babu, A., Cutinha, E., Joseph, J., & Vas, J. S. (2018). A Study on Contributing Factors of Nurses Migration to Overseas among the Staff Nurses Working In Selected Hospital at Mangalore. Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU, 08(04), 003–006. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1708765 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1708765

Qawiyurrijal, N., Zainul, M., & Kurniawati, M. F. (2021). Pekerja Migran Indonesia Di Tengah Pandemi Covid-19 Dalam Bingkai Media Daring (Analisis Framing Model Robert N. Entman Pada Portal Berita Bbc News Indonesia Periode Januari – Mei 2020). Master Thesis. Universitas Islam Kalimantan Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari Banjarmasin. Retrieved from http://eprints.uniska-bjm.ac.id/4574/

Rouleau, G., Gagnon, M. P., Côté, J., Payne-Gagnon, J., Hudson, E., & Dubois, C. A. (2017). Impact of information and communication technologies on nursing care: Results of an overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(4): e122. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.6686 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.6686

Souza, N. V. D. de O., Carvalho, E. C., Soares, S. S. S., Varella, T. C. M. Y. M. L., Pereira, S. R. M., & Andrade, K. B. S. de. (2021). Nursing work in the COVID-19 pandemic and repercussions for workers’ mental health. Revista Gaucha de Enfermagem, 42(spe), e20200225. https://doi.org/10.1590/1983-1447.2021.20200225 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1983-1447.2021.20200225

Tankwanchi, A. S., Hagopian, A., & Vermund, S. H. (2019). International migration of health labour: Monitoring the two-way flow of physicians in South Africa. BMJ Global Health, 4(5), e001566. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001566 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001566

The Indonesian National Human Rights Commission. (2021). The Role of the National Commission on Human Rights of the Republic of Indonesia related to the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Human Rights and Sustainable Development Goals in Indonesia. Jakarta: The Indonesian National Human Rights Commission.

Torjesen, I. (2021). Covid-19: Omicron may be more transmissible than other variants and partly resistant to existing vaccines, scientists fear. BMJ, 375, n2943. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n2943 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n2943

Tukayo, I. J. H., & Hardy, S. (2020). The Comparison of Work Productivity Between Nurses with Insight of Occupational Health Nursing (OHN) and of Those Without It. Jurnal Keperawatan, 11(2), 127–134. https://doi.org/10.22219/jk.v11i2.12107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22219/jk.v11i2.12107

Uddin, S. (2019). Factors Related The Job Satisfaction Among Migrant Nurses In Qatar. South East Asia Nursing Research, 1(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.26714/seanr.1.1.2019.1-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26714/seanr.1.1.2019.1-6

Uwabuike, C. (2020). Understanding West African migrant nurses ’ work ex- periences in the United Kingdom : a phenomenological study. PhD Thesis. Birkbeck, University of London

Wiseman, V., Thabrany, H., Asante, A., Haemmerli, M., Kosen, S., Gilson, L., Mills, A., Hayen, A., Tangcharoensathien, V., & Patcharanarumol, W. (2018). An evaluation of health systems equity in Indonesia: Study protocol. International Journal for Equity in Health, 17(138), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0822-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0822-0

Zulfikar, A. (2016). Peluang dan Tantangan Pekerja Migran Indonesia dalam Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN. Konvensi Nasional Asosiasi Ilmu Hubungan Internasional VII Tahun 2016 di Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.31227/osf.io/9twcv DOI: https://doi.org/10.31227/osf.io/9twcv




How to Cite

Jumu, L., Hardy, S. ., Riyadi, S., Arief, D. ., Afzal, R. ., & Sukatemin, S. (2022). Ex-Migrant Nurses Empowerment after Recovery from Covid-19 Pandemic: An Analysis of Reflective Cycle Gibbs Model. JURNAL INFO KESEHATAN, 20(2), 154–165. https://doi.org/10.31965/infokes.Vol20.Iss2.813



Literature Review
Abstract viewed = 111 times