Analysis of the Readiness of Primary Health Center Nurses in Encountering Community Stigma during the COVID-19 Pandemic


  • Tatiana Siregar Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta, Depok, West Java, Indonesia
  • Diah Ratnawati Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta, Depok, West Java, Indonesia



COVID-19, Nurses of Primary Health Center, Stigma


The COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in public fear of transmitting infection. Nurses in dealing with the COVID-19 outbreak also obtained stigmatized due to discrimination received by COVID-19 sufferers. The objective of the study is to identify the dominant factor to determine the occurrence of stigma experienced by nurses when caring for COVID-19 patients. The research design was qualitative and quantitative, with a sample of 121 Primary Health Center nurses who were performed by convenience sampling. Data analysis with Multiple Linear Regression presented that overall, there was a significant correlation between knowledge in preventing COVID-19, Personal Ability and Organizational Ability to stigma from society experienced by nurses with ANOVA or F test results (229.427) with p = 0.000. Morever, there is a strong and significant relationship between knowledge, self-efficacy and organizational ability to community stigma (R Square = 0.964). The dominant factor that affects stigma as seen from the t-test is self-ability = 14,828 (p=0.001) followed by organizational ability= -8,790 (0.001) and knowledge = 5.050 (p=0.001). It was concluded that the limitations of human resources and special infrastructure for people with COVID-19 were the trigger for the occurrence of stigma. It is hoped that the maintenance of well-being among health workers is at the forefront by beginning at the policy-making level to offer enhanced support for health workers who play a critical role during large-scale disease outbreaks. The psychological implications are mostly negative and urgently need greater attention to be mitigated, potentially through the involvement of psychologists, given better awareness and education. It is expected that further researchers can explore the phenomenon of the experience of nurses who suffer from COVID-19 in dealing with the stigma that occurs to them.


Download data is not yet available.


Abudi, R., Mokodompis, Y., & Magulili, A. N. (2020). Stigma Terhadap Orang Positif Covid-19. Jambura Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 2(2), 77–84. DOI:

Ahmadidarrehsima, S., Salari, N., Dastyar, N., & Rafati, F. (2022). Exploring the experiences of nurses caring for patients with COVID-19: a qualitative study in Iran. BMC Nursing, 21(1), 1–7. DOI:

Albaqawi, H. M., Alquwez, N., Balay-Odao, E., Bajet, J. B., Alabdulaziz, H., Alsolami, F., ... & Cruz, J. P. (2020). Nursing students' perceptions, knowledge, and preventive behaviors toward COVID-19: a multi-university study. Frontiers in public health, 8, 573390. DOI:

Aranda, M., Castillo-Mayén, M. D. R., & Montes-Berges, B. (2015). Has the traditional social perception on nurses changed? Attribution of stereotypes and gender roles. Acción Psicológica, 12(1), 103-112. DOI:

Barrett-Landau, S., & Henle, S. (2014). Men in Nursing: Their Influence in a Female Dominated Career. Journal for Leadership and Instruction, 13(2), 10–13.

Braveman, P., & Gottlieb, L. (2014). The social determinants of health: It’s time to consider the causes of the causes. Public Health Reports, 129 (SUPPL.2), 19–31. DOI:

Diana, Eliyana, A., Mukhtadi, & Anwar, A. (2022). Creating the path for quality of work life: A study on nurse performance. Heliyon, 8(1), e08685. DOI:

Donev, D., Kovacic, L., & Laaser, U. (2013). The Role and Organization of Health Care Systems. Germany: Jacob Publishing Company.

Duan, W., Bu, H., & Chen, Z. (2020). COVID-19-related stigma profiles and risk factors among people who are at high risk of contagion. Social Science & Medicine, 266, 113425. DOI:

Fryer, L. A. (2012). Human factors in nursing: The time is now. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, The, 30(2), 56-65. DOI:

Hashmi, F. K., Iqbal, Q., Haque, N., & Saleem, F. (2020). Religious cliché and stigma: A brief response to overlooked barriers in COVID-19 management. Journal of religion and health, 59(6), 2697-2700. DOI:

Hastuti, N., Djanah, S. N. (2020). Studi Tinjauan Pustaka: Penularan Dan Pencegahan Penyebaran. 7(2), 70–76. DOI:

Kackin, O., Ciydem, E., Aci, O. S., & Kutlu, F. Y. (2021). Experiences and psychosocial problems of nurses caring for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Turkey: A qualitative study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 67(2), 158-167. DOI:

Kelly, M. P., & Barker, M. (2016). Why is changing health-related behaviour so difficult? Public Health, 136, 109–116. DOI:

Kieft, R. A. M. M., De Brouwer, B. B. J. M., Francke, A. L., & Delnoij, D. M. J. (2014). How nurses and their work environment affect patient experiences of the quality of care: A qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research, 14(1), 1–10. DOI:

Kohrt, B. A., Asher, L., Bhardwaj, A., Fazel, M., Jordans, M. J. D., Mutamba, B. B., Nadkarni, A., Pedersen, G. A., Singla, D. R., & Patel, V. (2018). The role of communities in mental health care in low-and middle-income countries: A meta-review of components and competencies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(6), 1279. DOI:

Koren, A., Ul Alam, M. A., Koneru, S., DeVito, A., Abdallah, L., & Liu, B. (2021). Nursing Perspectives on the Impacts of COVID-19: Social Media Content Analysis. JMIR Formative Research, 5(12), e31358. DOI:

Kozier. (2012). Fundamentals of Nursing : Concepts, Process and Practices. (9 (ed.)). Pearson Education.

Lam, K. K., & Hung, S. Y. M. (2013). Perceptions of emergency nurses during the human swine influenza outbreak: A qualitative study. International Emergency Nursing, 21(4), 240–246. DOI:

Lam, S. K. K., Kwong, E. W. Y., Hung, M. S. Y., Pang, S. M. C., & Chien, W. T. (2019). A qualitative descriptive study of the contextual factors influencing the practice of emergency nurses in managing emerging infectious diseases. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 14(1). DOI:

Liminana-Gras, R. M., Sanchez-Lopez, M. P., Román, A. I. S. S., & Corbalan-Berna, F. J. (2013). Health and gender in female-dominated occupations: The case of male nurses. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 21(2), 135-148. DOI:

Li, S., Jiang, Q., & Zhang, P. (2021). Factors Influencing the Health Behavior During Public Health Emergency: A Case Study on Norovirus Outbreak in a University. Data and Information Management, 5(1), 27–39. DOI:

Manik, M. J., Natalia, S., & Theresia, T. (2021). Social stigma towards nurses taking care of patients with COVID-19 in Indonesia: A mixed-methods study. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(2), 98-106. DOI:

Mas' udi, W., & Winanti, P. S. (2020). Tata Kelola Penanganan COVID-19 di Indonesia: Kajian Awal. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Muliawati, N. K., Puspawati, N. L. P. D., & Sintaningsih, N. K. K. D. (2021). Pengetahuan Berhubungan Dengan Stigma Pada Orang Terkonfirmasi Positip Corona Virus Disease -19. Jurnal Surya Muda, 3(2), 147–158. DOI:

Noar, S. M., & Zimmerman, R. S. (2005). Health Behavior Theory and cumulative knowledge regarding health behaviors: Are we moving in the right direction? Health Education Research, 20(3), 275–290. DOI:

Notoadmojo. (2012). Promosi Kesehatan dan Perilaku Kesehatan. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.

Novita, S., & Elon, Y. (2021). Stigma Masyarakat terhadap Penderita Covid-19. Jurnal Kesehatan, 12(1), 25-33. DOI:

OConnor, T. (2015). Men Choosing Nursing: Negotiating a Masculine Identity in a Feminine World. Journal of Men’s Studies, 23(2), 194–211. DOI:

Oktaviannoor, H., Herawati, A., Hidayah, N., Martina, M., & Hanafi, A. S. (2020). Pengetahuan dan stigma masyarakat terhadap pasien Covid-19 dan tenaga kesehatan di Kota Banjarmasin. Dinamika Kesehatan: Jurnal Kebidanan Dan Keperawatan, 11(1), 98-109. DOI:

Pool, Lorraine Dacre., ., & Sewell, P. (2007). The key to employability: Developing a practical model of graduate employability. Education and Training, 49(4), 277–289. DOI:

Prastika;, V. A., Rahman;, A., & Hermawan;, Y. (2022). Analisis Stigma Sosial Terhadap Penyintas Covid– 19 Di Kabupaten Klaten. Jurnal Ilmiah Kajian Ilmu Sosial Dan Budaya, 24(1), 1–25.

Putri, S. T., Andriyani, S., Salasa, S., & Adikusuma, T. (2018). Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Dalam Pengelolaan Kesehatan Melalui Pendekatan Adaptive Conservation Di Kelurahan Padasuka Kota Bandung. JPPM (Jurnal Pengabdian Dan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat), 2(2), 221-229. DOI:

Presiden Republik Indonesia. (2014). Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 38 Tahun 2014 Tentang Keperawatan. Jakarta: Sekertariat Negara Republik Indonesia.

Rasul, M. S., & Puvanasvaran, A. P. (2009). Importance of employability skills as perceived by employers of Malaysian manufacturing industry. Journal of Human Capital Development (JHCD), 2(2), 23-35.

Sinurat, S., Saragih, I. S., & Larosa, M. F. (2021). Correlation of Public Self-Awareness with Behaviour in Suppressing the Spread of COVID-19 at Parombunan Sub Disctric Zone VI Sibolga City in 2021. Jurnal Kesehatan LLDikti Wilayah 1 (JUKES), 1(2), 51-59. DOI:

Siregar, B. N., Sitanggang, E. J., Hasibuan, P., & Sufida, S. (2022). Hubungan Pengetahuan dengan Stigma Masyarakat tentang COVID-19 di Kota Medan. Nommensen Journal of Medicine, 7(2), 47–50. DOI:

Sujianto, A. (2020). Pengaruh Kemampuan Kerja Dan Kepercayaan Diri Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Pada PT . Dandelion Sahabat Sejati Surabaya. Skripsi. Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya.

Supriatin, E. (2015). Perilaku Caring Perawat Berdasarkan Faktor Individu dan Organisasi. Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 18(3), 192–198. DOI:

Syahrudin, H. (2018). The Effect of Interpersonal skills on Performance of Regional Secretariat Employee in Kapuas Regency. Journal Terapan Manajemen Dan Bisnis, 4(1), 67–78. DOI:

United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. (2020). COVID-19 and Stigma: How to prevent and address social stigma in your community. United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund.

World Health Organization. (2020). A guide to preventing and addressing social stigma associated with COVID-19. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved from:

Yanti, B., Wahyudi, E., Wahiduddin, W., Novika, R. G. H., Arina, Y. M. D., Martani, N. S., & Nawan, N. (2020). Community Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Towards Social Distancing Policy As Prevention Transmission of Covid-19 in Indonesia. Jurnal Administrasi Kesehatan Indonesia, 8(2), 4-14. DOI:

Yenti, N., Machasin, & Amsal, C. (2014). Effect of Emotional Intelligence, Intellectual Intelligence and Discipline to Nurses Performance in PMC Hospital Pekanbaru. Jom FEKON, 1(2), 1–21.

Zarei, N., Joulaei, H., Darabi, E., & Fararouei, M. (2015). Stigmatized Attitude of Healthcare Providers: A Barrier for Delivering Health Services to HIV Positive Patients. International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery, 3(4), 292–300.




How to Cite

Siregar, T. ., & Ratnawati, D. . (2022). Analysis of the Readiness of Primary Health Center Nurses in Encountering Community Stigma during the COVID-19 Pandemic. JURNAL INFO KESEHATAN, 20(1), 73–86.



Original Research
Abstract viewed = 165 times