The Effects of Black Garlic on Ovarian Malondialdehyde, Oviduct Muscle, and Endometrial Arterioles in Smoke-Exposed Rats


  • Noni Fidya Ayu Anandasari Master Program of Midwifery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
  • Novalia Kridayanti Master Program of Midwifery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
  • Ni Ketut Devy Kaspirayanthi Master Program of Midwifery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
  • Tatit Nurseta Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
  • Tri Yudani Mardining Raras Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  • Husnul Khotimah Faculty of Medical, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
  • Subandi Reksohusodo Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
  • Kenty Wantri Anita Department of Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
  • Hendy Setyo Yudhanto Department of Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia



Black Garlic Extract, Cigarette Smoke, Oviduct Muscle, Malondialdehyde Levels, Endometrial Arterioles


The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on reproductive health has been widely studied, showing various physiological disorders induced by free radicals and oxidative stress. This study aimed to assess the protective effect of ethanol extract of black garlic (Allium sativum) on some reproductive parameters of female rats Rattus norvegicus exposed to subacute cigarette smoke. A proper experimental method with a post-test-only control group design was used, involving 25 rats divided into five groups with three different doses of the extract. The rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and then treated for 28 days. Results showed a significant decrease in ovarian Malondialdehyde levels and increased fallopian tube smooth muscle thickness in the extract-treated group. In addition, black garlic extract successfully increased the number of endometrial arterioles in the group exposed to cigarette smoke and extract, in contrast to the group exposed to cigarette smoke only. This study concludes that black garlic extract has the potential to be a protective agent against oxidative damage in the reproductive system of rats exposed to cigarette smoke, with effectiveness that depends on the dose of extract given. Further studies should investigate the long-term effects and optimal dosing of black garlic extract in humans. Additionally, exploring the molecular mechanisms behind its protective properties could enhance its application in reproductive health management.                 


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How to Cite

Anandasari, N. F. A., Kridayanti, N., Kaspirayanthi, N. K. D., Nurseta, T., Raras, T. Y. M., Khotimah, H., … Yudhanto, H. S. (2024). The Effects of Black Garlic on Ovarian Malondialdehyde, Oviduct Muscle, and Endometrial Arterioles in Smoke-Exposed Rats. JURNAL INFO KESEHATAN, 22(2), 244–258.



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