Acute Toxicity and Antipyretic Test of Ethanol Extract of Sterculia Quadrifida. R. Br. Leaves as Traditional Medicine


  • Stefany S.A Fernandez Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Kupang, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
  • Dominus Mbunga Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Kupang, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
  • Acacio Cardoso Amaral Universidade Nacional Timor Lorosa’e (UNTL), Republic Democratic of Timor Leste
  • Lidia Lau Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Kupang, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
  • Putriasa G Feoh Department of Pharmacy, Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Kupang, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia



Faloak, Extract, Acut Toxicity, Antipyretic, Sterculia Quadrifida


Sterculia quadrifida (SQ) is a plant which is also known as "faloak" by the people of East Nusa Tenggara. The secondary metabolite content of this plant has sufficient potential to be developed. Taking the bark of SQ which is not balanced with its preservation can threaten its survival. The use of SQ leaves as a new traditional medicine needs to be tested for its efficacy and safety.The aim of the study was to provide information about the efficacy and safety of SQ leaves in the development of new traditional medicines. The acute toxicity test used the fix-dose combination method according to the BPOM recommendation. A single oral dose of 2000 mg/KgBw of extract was given to five male mice at 24 h intervals. Animals were observed individually for any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality for 24 hours and 14 days. DPT (difteri, pertussis, tetanus)-Hb (Hepatitis-B) was used as a fever inducer in the antipyretic test of infusion and ethanol extract of SQ leaves. For acute treatment, the ethanol extract of Sterculia quadrifida (EESQ)  did not reveal any signs of toxicity or mortality in any animal, during the observation period. The LD50 of extract was estimated to be greater than 2000 mg/KgBw. A dose of 2000 mg/KgBw  in mice for 14 days showed significant side effects on the liver and spleen which were marked by organ weights that were significantly different from the control group. Paracetamol as positive control, infusion of Sterculia quadrifida leaves (ISQ) 100%, and EESQ 400 mg/KgBw showed a significant difference (p<0.05) with the negative control group. The results showed that SQ leaf has potential as an antipyretic, but liver function must be monitored, even though the LD50 value is above 2000 mg/KgBw.  


Download data is not yet available.


Ai, M., Li, T., Zhang, L., Xu, H., Mou, D., & Liang, L. (2021). Clinical Features and Prognostic Risk Factors of COVID-19 in Adults: a Retrospective Analysis of 93 Cases. Chinese General Practice, 24(2), 196-204. Retrieved from

Akter, K., Barnes, E. C., Brophy, J. J., Harrington, D., Community Elders, Y., Vemulpad, S. R., & Jamie, J. F. (2016). Phytochemical profile and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016, 4683059.

Alkahtani, S., Hasnain, M. S., Algamdy, H., Aljarba, N. H., & AlKahtane, A. (2022). Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity Lagerstroemia speciosa in Sprague-Dawley rats. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 29(3), 1585-1591.

Alvinasyrah, A. (2021). Nilai Trombosit dan Hematokrit dalam Manifestasi Perdarahan Pasien Demam Berdarah Dengue. Jurnal Penelitian Perawat Profesional, 3(1), 153-158.

Asare, G. A., Gyan, B., Bugyei, K., Adjei, S., Mahama, R., Addo, P., ... & Nyarko, A. (2012). Toxicity potentials of the nutraceutical Moringa oleifera at supra-supplementation levels. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 139(1), 265-272.

Asare-Boateng, K., Mensah, Y. B., Mensah, N. A., Oliver-Commey, J., & Oduro-Mensah, E. (2020). A review of chest radiographic patterns in mild to moderate novel corona virus disease 2019 at an urban hospital in Ghana. Ghana Medical Journal, 54(4s), 46-51.

Badan Pusat Statistika. (2022). Persentase Penduduk yang Mengobati Sendiri Selama Sebulan Terakhir. Badan Pusat Statistika

Borowska, S., & Brzóska, M. M. (2015). Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health. Journal of applied toxicology, 35(6), 551-572.

BPOM. (2022). Peraturan Badan Pengawas Obat Dan Makanan Nomor 10 Tahun 2022 Tentang Pedoman Uji Toksisitas Praklinik Secara In Vivo. BPOM

Badan Pusat Statistik Nusa Tenggara Timur. (2022). Statistik Kesehatan Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Badan Pusat Statistik Nusa Tenggara Timur.

Burgos-Pino, J., Gual-Orozco, B., Vera-Ku, M., Loría-Cervera, E. N., Guillermo-Cordero, L., Martínez-Vega, P. P., ... & Gamboa-León, R. (2023). Acute oral toxicity in BALB/c mice of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum extracts and (3S)-16, 17-didehydrofalcarinol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 301, 115840.

Dean, M., Handajani, R., & Khotib, J. (2019). Faloak (Sterculia quadrifida R. Br) stem bark extract inhibits hepatitis C virus JFH1. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 35(1), 430-435.

Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2017). Farmakope Herbal Indonesia Edisi II. Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.

Dillak, H. I., Kristiani, E. B. E., & Kasmiyati, S. (2019). Secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Faloak (Sterculia quadrifida). Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 11(3), 296-303. Retrieved from

Fitriany, J., & Annisa, I. (2019). Demam Reumatik Akut. AVERROUS: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Malikussaleh, 5(2), 11-25.

Forestryana, D., & Arnida, A. (2020). Skrining Fitokimia Dan Analisis Kromatografi Lapis Tipis Ekstrak Etanol Daun Jeruju (Hydrolea Spinosa L.). Jurnal Ilmiah Farmako Bahari, 11(2), 113-124.

Haraguchi, A., Yamazaki, T., Ryan, C., Ito, K., Sato, S., Tamura, K., ... & Shibata, S. (2022). Caffeine suppresses high-fat diet-induced body weight gain in mice depending on feeding timing. Journal of Functional Foods, 99, 105307.

Harborne, J. B. (1996). Metode Fitokimia, penuntun dan cara modern menganalisis Tumbuhan. Penerjemah: Padmawinata K dan Soediro I. Penerbit ITB Bandung.

Javed, F., Jabeen, Q., Aslam, N., & Awan, A. M. (2020). Pharmacological evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Indigofera argentea Burm. f. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 259, 112966.

Lassak, E. V., & McCarthy, T. (1983). Australian medicinal plants. New South Wales

Levani, Y., & Prastya, A. D. (2020). Demam Tifoid: Manifestasi Klinis, Pilihan Terapi Dan Pandangan Dalam Islam. Al-Iqra Medical Journal: Jurnal Berkala Ilmiah Kedokteran, 3(1), 10-16.

Masula, A. F., Puspitasari, D., SW, E. S., Ummah, K., Rokhmatin, D., Mubarrok, M. M., ... & Purnama, E. R. (2018). Docking Molekuler Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder Lantana camara Sebagai Antiinflamasi Terhadap Enzim COX-1. Jurnal Biota, 4(2), 79-83.

Moharram, F. A., Nagy, M. M., El Dib, R. A., El-Tantawy, M. M., El Hossary, G. G., & El-Hosari, D. G. (2021). Pharmacological activity and flavonoids constituents of Artemisia judaica L aerial parts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 270, 113777.

Nijveldt, R. J., Van Nood, E. L. S., Van Hoorn, D. E., Boelens, P. G., Van Norren, K., & Van Leeuwen, P. A. (2001). Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 74(4), 418-425.

NSW Goverment. (2017). Lembar Fakta Penyakit Menular Hepatitis A. Hepatitis A - Indonesian.

Onyegbule, F. A., Ezenwa, C. J., Bruce, S. O., & Umeokoli, B. O. (2020). Standardization, chemical composition and antipyretic evaluation of the methanol leaf extract and fractions of chrysophyllum albidum (Sapotaceae). Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research, 4(6), 216–222.

Quartey, A. K., Jibira, Y., Forkuo-Donkor, A., Ayensu, I., Oduro-Kwarteng, A. A., Asuamah, S. E. R., & Noah, P. (2020). Hydroethanolic stem bark extract of Vernonia amygdalina Del.(Asteraceae) suppresses yeast-induced pyrexia and Plasmodium berghei malaria in murine models. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 14(6), 258-264.

Ranta, F., Pribadi, E. S., & Nawawi, D. S. (2011). Sifat Antimikroba Zat Ekstraktif Pohon Faloak ( Sterculia comosa Wallich ). Scientific Repository. IPB University

Rianawati, H., & Siswadi, S. (2020). Effect of donor plants and rooting medium on stem cutting propagation of faloak (Sterculia quadrifida). International Journal of Tropical Drylands, 4(2), 31-35.

Rizki, F. S., & Ferdinand, A. (2021). Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Senyawa Flavonoid Ekstrak Etanol Pandan Hutan Jenis Baru Freycinetia Sessiliflora Rizki. Jurnal Insan Farmasi Indonesia, 4(1), 1-6.

Rosidah, Yam, M. F., Sadikun, A., Ahmad, M., Akowuah, G. A., & Asmawi, M. Z. (2009). Toxicology evaluation of standardized methanol extract of Gynura procumbens. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 123(2), 244-249.

Saifudin, A., Tahayu, V. & Teruna, H. Y. (2011). Standarisasi Bahan Obat Alam. Edisi Pertama. In Standarisasi Bahan Obat Alam. Yogyakarta : Graha Ilmu

Saptarini, N. M., & Kartikawati, E. (2021). Antipyretic activity of centella (Centella asiatica (l.) urban) herb in vaccine induced mice. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 13(Special Issue 3), 76–78.

Saragih, G. S., & Siswadi, S. (2019). Antioxidant activity of plant parts extracts from Sterculia quadrifida R. Br. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 12(7), 143-148.

Siswadi, S., & Saragih, G. S. (2018). Acute tocixity of Sterculia quadrifida R. br bark ethanol extract on sprague-dawley rats. Majalah Obat Tradisional, 23(2), 127-134.

Siswadi, S., Pujiono, E., Rianawati, H., & Saragih, G. S. (2016, April). Nilai Ekonomi Kulit Batang Pohon Faloak (Sterculia quadrifida R. Br.). Proceeding of Mulawarman Pharmaceuticals Conferences, 3, pp. 379-388. Retrieved from

SP3T Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. (2016). Inventarisasi, Penapisan Fitokimia Dan Penentuan Ld50 Tanaman Faloak (Sterculia Comosa Wallich) Yang Digunakan Sebagai Ramuan Tradisonal Oleh Masyarakat Dan Penyehat Tradisional (Hattra) Di Kabupaten Kupang Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Kupang: SP3T Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur.

Tenda, P. E., Lenggu, M. Y., & Ngale, M. S. (2017). Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Pohon Faloak (Sterculia sp.) Terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus Aureus. Jurnal Info Kesehatan, 15(1), 227-239. Retrieved from

Winanta, A., & Hertiani, T. (2019). In vivo Immunomodulatory Activity of Faloak Bark Extract (Sterculia quadrifida R. Br). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS, 22(12), 590-596.

Zhou, W., Dai, Y., Meng, J., Wang, P., Wu, Y., Dai, L., … Huo, H. (2021). Network pharmacology integrated with molecular docking reveals the common experiment-validated antipyretic mechanism of bitter-cold herbs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 274, 114042.




How to Cite

Fernandez, S. S., Mbunga, D., Amaral, A. C., Lau, L., & Feoh, P. G. (2023). Acute Toxicity and Antipyretic Test of Ethanol Extract of Sterculia Quadrifida. R. Br. Leaves as Traditional Medicine . JURNAL INFO KESEHATAN, 21(3), 517–528.



Original Articles

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.